You Heard His Name. Learn His Story. Demand His Freedom.

Issue No 8 / 2 May 2022 ★ Contact:


Freedom for Abdullah Öcalan…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2

Lawyers of Abdullah Öcalan apply for a visit………………………………………………………………………….2 Öcalan’s lawyers submit urgent request to CPT………………………………………………………………………3 Lawyers submit another application to visit Abdullah Öcalan…………………………………………………..4

1st of May………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

KCK: Let’s take a stand together against the AKP-MHP occupation attacks on May 1………………….6

Prisons……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9

Kurdish language continues to be prohibited in prisons……………………………………………………………9 Human Rights Association: 255 prisoners have died in 5 years………………………………………………..10 HDP deputy Gergerlioğlu draws attention to overcrowding and violations in Turkish prisons……..11 Guards force prisoners to commit suicide in Silivri………………………………………………………………..12 70-year-old prisoner remains in prison despite not being able to meet his needs…………………………13 Police detains activists protesting for prisoners in Istanbul………………………………………………………13 Families protesting for prisoners on death fast detained………………………………………………………….14 Hıdır Sabur: We must raise our voice to expose violations of rights in prison…………………………….15

Military Aggressions by Turkey…………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

Karayılan: This is a matter of life and death, every Kurd must do their part!………………………………16 Turkey’s village guards continue plunder of nature in South Kurdistan……………………………………..26 Forests in Şırnak countryside under Turkish military threat…………………………………………………….27 Muqtada Al Sadr says Turkish attacks a violation of Iraqi sovereignity………………………………………28 Iraqi President Barham Salih: Turkish state’s attacks are clear threat to national security………………28 Iraq hands Turkey a diplomatic note, calling for withdrawal of Turkish troops…………………………..29 Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs denies Turkish President statement about Baghdad cooperation….29 Chinook helicopters in the war in Kurdistan………………………………………………………………………..30 KNK issues public call demanding the OPCW to investigate Turkey’s use of chemical weapons…..31 Germany backs Turkish invasion in South Kurdistan……………………………………………………………..33 Osman Kavala sentenced to aggravated life imprisonment in Gezi Trial……………………………………34

Human Rights……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35

Teacher working in Mersin has his “salary cut” for speaking Kurdish and Arabic to his students…..35

Şenyaşar Family’s Case…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36

Emine Şenyaşar summoned to testify again………………………………………………………………………….36

Four people arrested in connection with massacre against Şenyaşar family in Urfa………………………37

Opinion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

Sezai Temelli: The war economy is the reason for Turkey’s economic collapse…………………………….38

Reclaim and protect the resistance in prison…………………………………………………………………………40

Who Are We?…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42

2 The İmralı Post #8

Freedom for Abdullah Öcalan Lawyers of Abdullah Öcalan apply for a visit

ANF | Istanbul | 12 April 2022

Kurdish leader Abdullah Öcalan’s lawyers, İbrahim Bilmez, Cengiz Yürekli, Nevroz Uysal and Mazlum Dinç, have once again applied to the Bursa Chief Public Prosecutor’s Office and the management of Im- rali Island Prison to meet with their client.

On March 14, 2021, rumours spread on social media claiming that Öcalan had died in prison. Immedi- ately, protests were organised around the world demanding an urgent visit by the lawyers to Imrali.

On March 25, Öcalan was able to talk with his brother Mehmet Öcalan. The short phone conversation happened about a year after a previous call, on 27 April 2020, and it is the first time since then that Öcalan had actual contact with someone outside.

The phone conversation was held under the supervision of the Urfa Chief Public Prosecutor’s Office and was very short. The call was interrupted pretty soon. Likewise, the phone call by another prisoner on Im- rali, Hamili Yıldırım, with his family was also abruptly interrupted. It was reported that the other two prisoners, Ömer Hayri Konar and Veysi Aktaş, did not make the phone call they were offered to protest isolation.

All applications for visit have been so far rejected or gone unanswered.

The Imrali Delegation, which was able to hold talks with Öcalan within the framework of peace negotia- tions, has not been allowed to visit the prison island since April 2015. Since the last visit of the team of lawyers on August 7, 2019, the Turkish authorities have not responded to any of the continuous requests for visits.

The Turkish authorities use the “roadmap for negotiations” submitted to the European Court of Human Rights in 2009 as the justification for the ban on visits by Abdullah Öcalan’s team of lawyers.

On the other hand, the investigation launched in 2012 against lawyers of Kurdish people’s leader Abdul- lah Öcalan, Rezan Sarıca, Ali Maden, Baran Doğan, Cengiz Yürekli, İnan Akmeşe, Mahmut Taşçı and Mehmet Selim Okçuoğlu, was picked up again at the beginning of 2021.

The lawyers went to the prosecutor’s office and gave a statement. After the statements were taken, the in- dictment prepared by the prosecutor’s office was accepted by the Istanbul 33rd High Criminal Court. Lawyers are accused, among other things, of “membership of a terrorist organization”, and they are ex- pected to appear in court in September.

3 The İmralı Post #8

In the indictment, where lawyer meetings with Öcalan were shown as a criminal element, the lawyers’ re- fusal to accept the accusations against them was also cited as a criminal element. In addition, while lawyer Cengiz Yürekli’s use of his right to remain silent was shown as an element of crime, phone calls made by detainees with their families due to their profession were also considered a crime.

The most interesting subject of accusation in the indictment was that statements such as “isolation is being applied to Öcalan” and “lawyers have not been allowed to see him for 300 days” were cited as criminal ele – ments. These were sentences contained in statements made by the lawyers to the press.

Öcalan’s lawyers submit urgent request to CPT

ANF | 16 April 2022

Since March 25, 2021, there has been no sign of life from the prisoners on Imrali Island in the Sea of Marmara. There is no contact whatsoever with Abdullah Öcalan and his fellow prisoners Ömer Hayri Konar, Hamili Yıldırım and Veysi Aktaş. Due to this situation, the Asrin Law Office, which represents Öcalan and his fellow prisoners, once again turned to the European Committee for the Prevention of Tor- ture (CPT) and demanded an investigation into the current total isolation and systematic violation of the ban on torture by the Council of Europe institution.

273 requests for visits were made in 2021

The lawyers told the Mezopotamya news agency (MA) that they had submitted various requests during the year to visit their clients, to learn about their situation and to assert their basic rights guaranteed by law. None of the requests was granted. In 2021, the legal team submitted 71 requests for family visits and 202 requests for their own visits. The lawyers explain: “But none of the requests for visitation was granted. Var – ious applications to institutions such as the Bursa Execution Court, the Ministry of Justice and the Parlia- mentary Human Rights Commission and the Constitutional Court were also unsuccessful.”

“Nothing leaks out from Imrali”

Asrin Law Office’s application to the CPT describes the Imrali detention as “incommunicado” detention, a Spanish legal term that stems from the torture and isolation of “terrorist suspects” by the Spanish state and has led to Spain’s condemnation at the European Court of Human Rights on several occasions. The law office points out in the application that letters to clients on Imrali have also not been answered. Re- garding the isolation of prisoners on Imrali, the application states, “The cutting off of all means of com – munication with the outside world and the continuation of this practice indefinitely constitute a violation of the prohibition of inhuman treatment and ill-treatment.”

4 The İmralı Post #8 Five lawyer visits in eleven years

The lawyers state that only five lawyer visits to Imrali have been made possible in the past eleven years. These five contacts took place within four months in 2019. No lawyer visits have been possible since Au- gust 7, 2019, and no family visits have been possible since March 3, 2020. The disciplinary sanctions that are repeatedly used to justify the isolation are issued in secret proceedings without the participation of le- gal counsel. This restriction is also a massive attack on the fundamental rights of detainees.

Call for immediate CPT visit to Imrali

In order to ensure the rights of detainees on Imrali, the legal team calls for an immediate CPT visit to Im- rali. This, they say, is an inescapable necessity arising from the “violation of the prohibition of torture.”

The demands of the Asrin Law Office are as follows: * The committee must visit Imrali as soon as possible.

* It must be ensured that lawyers, relatives and legal representatives visit the prisoners immediately. It must be guaranteed that visits are made possible on a permanent basis.

* At the same time, the right to regular telephone calls must be guaranteed in parallel with opportunities for visits. It must be possible to use means of communication such as letters and faxes.

* Prisoners must have access to newspapers, magazines and books.

* Torture and ill-treatment must be ended, and mandatory measures and courses of action must be intro- duced to this end.”

Lawyers submit another application to visit Abdullah Öcalan

ANF | Istanbul | 26 April 2022

Kurdish leader Abdullah Öcalan’s lawyers, İbrahim Bilmez, Cengiz Yürekli, Nevroz Uysal and Mazlum Dinç, have once again applied to the Bursa Chief Public Prosecutor’s Office and the management of Im- rali Island Prison to meet with their client.

On March 14, 2021, rumours spread on social media claiming that Öcalan had died in prison. Immedi- ately, protests were organised around the world demanding an urgent visit by the lawyers to Imrali.

5 The İmralı Post #8

On March 25, 2021, Öcalan was able to talk with his brother Mehmet Öcalan. The short phone conversa- tion happened about a year after a previous call, on 27 April 2020, and it is the first time since then that Öcalan had actual contact with someone outside.

The phone conversation was held under the supervision of the Urfa Chief Public Prosecutor’s Office and was very short. The call was interrupted pretty soon. Likewise, the phone call by another prisoner on Im- rali, Hamili Yıldırım, with his family was also abruptly interrupted. It was reported that the other two prisoners, Ömer Hayri Konar and Veysi Aktaş, did not make the phone call they were offered to protest isolation.

All applications for visit have been so far rejected or gone unanswered.

The Imrali Delegation, which was able to hold talks with Öcalan within the framework of peace negotia- tions, has not been allowed to visit the prison island since April 2015. Since the last visit of the team of lawyers on August 7, 2019, the Turkish authorities have not responded to any of the continuous requests for visits.

The Turkish authorities use the “roadmap for negotiations” submitted to the European Court of Human Rights in 2009 as the justification for the ban on visits by Abdullah Öcalan’s team of lawyers.

On the other hand, the investigation launched in 2012 against lawyers of Kurdish people’s leader Abdul- lah Öcalan, Rezan Sarıca, Ali Maden, Baran Doğan, Cengiz Yürekli, İnan Akmeşe, Mahmut Taşçı and Mehmet Selim Okçuoğlu, was picked up again at the beginning of 2021.

The lawyers went to the prosecutor’s office and gave a statement. After the statements were taken, the in- dictment prepared by the prosecutor’s office was accepted by the Istanbul 33rd High Criminal Court. Lawyers are accused, among other things, of “membership of a terrorist organization”, and they are ex- pected to appear in court in September.

In the indictment, where lawyer meetings with Öcalan were shown as a criminal element, the lawyers’ re- fusal to accept the accusations against them was also cited as a criminal element. In addition, while lawyer Cengiz Yürekli’s use of his right to remain silent was shown as an element of crime, phone calls made by detainees with their families due to their profession were also considered a crime.

The most interesting subject of accusation in the indictment was that statements such as “isolation is being applied to Öcalan” and “lawyers have not been allowed to see him for 300 days” were cited as criminal ele – ments. These were sentences contained in statements made by the lawyers to the press.


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1st of May

KCK: Let’s take a stand together against the AKP-MHP occupation attacks on May 1

ANF | Behdinan | 30 April 2022

The Executive Council Co-presidency of the Kurdistan Communities Union (KCK) released a statement on the upcoming May Day and pointed out that all those who stand against tyranny and for equality and freedom must unite against AKP-MHP fascism and fight together against their common enemy.

It is imperative to achieve this unity and to overthrow the AKP-MHP, underlined the KCK statement re- leased on Saturday, which includes the following:

“We congratulate the international working class, all working people, peoples and women who are fight- ing for freedom and democracy on May Day – the day of unity, struggle and solidarity. We firmly believe that all oppressed groups of society, especially the workers, the entire working population, peoples and women, will take to the streets on May Day and celebrate this day with enthusiasm. This year’s May Day will lead the working class and the oppressed peoples of the world to further strengthen their unity and solidarity and intensify their common struggle for freedom against all oppression.

May Day is a very significant day when the working people fighting against oppression, the peoples and all oppressed people unite and express their feelings, consciousness and struggle for freedom in solidarity with each other. Throughout its history, humanity has continuously struggled against class-based civilization; a struggle that continues today. May Day is a part of the struggle that humanity is waging against exploita- tion. It is a contemporary expression of this historical struggle. Accordingly, May Day represents a univer- sal day on which humanity, dreaming of freedom and equality and fighting precisely for this, expresses its passion for these values.

The central feature of May Day is that it has been achieved through struggle. Therefore, on this day, all workers, the entire working population, all peoples and women must not only clearly express their de- mands, but openly take a stand against oppression, tyranny, fascism and exploitation and thus make May Day a day of struggle. No value and no achievement can be achieved without a struggle. It is undoubtedly the working class, peoples and women who know this best since since they lead their lives based on their own efforts. So if the capitalist system of exploitation is going through a serious crisis today, it is the result of this very struggle. And the collapse of capitalist modernity and the end of exploitation will also only be achieved through struggle.

The system of capitalist modernity is the strongest of all the systems of exploitation that have existed so far. The male-hegemonic system of exploitation, which began with the exploitation of women and nature, has reached its climax with capitalist modernity. For this system – based on

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its mentality oriented towards maximum exploitation and profit – leaves nothing untouched for its ex- ploitation. It has destroyed not only all humans and the values they have created, but also the entire natu – ral environment and the complete planet as a result of its limitless exploitation and profit mentality, thus destroying all the foundations of life.

The system of capitalist modernity is an enemy of society. It keeps expanding its limitless profit and ex- ploitation by breaking society into many parts. The weakening of society and its ultimate destruction con- stitutes a fundamental goal of capitalist modernity. For wherever society exists, neither capitalism nor any other system of exploitation can exist. Society opposes exploitation and does not tolerate it. With the help of society, humanity has managed to create all its material and immaterial values. Capitalist modernity, on the other hand, because of its limitless exploitation mentality, considers society as an enemy and attacks it accordingly. It considers the destruction of society as a basic prerequisite for its own existence. Therefore, society has lost much of its power due to the system of capitalist modernity. This has led to the fact that today there are practically no values left that are not being exploited and turned into money. It is therefore extremely important that everyone becomes even more aware of the anti-social character of capitalist modernity and works to strengthen or rebuild society in order to put an end to the current system of ex- ploitation.

Capitalist modernity promotes a boundless development of individualism and positions the individual against society. In doing so, it weakens society and ultimately destroys it. By depriving the individual of its proper place, capitalist modernity destroys society. It plays with the human`s world of feeling and meaning and weakens it. Thus, it degrades man to a being alienated from society, deprived of all meaning and feel- ings, individualistic and egoistic. It is therefore all the more important not to assume that the human be- ing and life that resemble robots exist in another place or in the future, but to recognize them in the indi- vidualism created by capitalist modernity, deprived of any meaning and feelings.

Today we live in a time of capitalist consumer society, where only consumption is considered a value. Such a life, in which nothing real is created and only consumption is considered valuable, is an expression of how deeply humanity has fallen. In order to free ourselves from this situation, it is necessary to fight against the mentality of capitalist modernity on the basis of social feelings and ideals until it is destroyed.

The most fundamental principle of the Kurdistan Freedom Movement is to be against exploitation. The PKK is a result of the heritage of the socialist struggle and has continued this struggle uninterruptedly since its emergence. For the interests of capitalist modernity, the Kurdish people have been subjected to tyranny and exploitation, of which there are few comparable examples in history. While Kurdistan was di- vided, the Kurdish people have been subjected to denial, annihilation and genocide. As a result, Kurdistan and the Kurdish people have been subjected to a system of total exploitation. Therefore, the struggle for freedom started by the PKK in Kurdistan represents one of the most important and significant awakenings historically and currently. Leader Apo [Abdullah Öcalan] built the PKK and committed himself to the struggle for freedom in Kurdistan because he is deeply attached to values such as equality, freedom and socialism. This attachment to equality, freedom and socialism constitutes the foundation of the PKK. Many of the leading PKK cadres are socialists and revolutionaries from Turkey. All these comrades have re- alized that the socialist struggle for equality and freedom lies in liberating the Kurdish people from geno- cide and colonialism. Based on this feeling, they have joined the struggle for freedom in Kurdistan.

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The Kurdish people are fighting not only for themselves, but for all peoples and for all humanity. A clear example of this is the fight against IS. Through their fight against IS, the PKK and the Kurdish people have taken responsibility for the values of the peoples of the Middle East and all humanity, while making heavy sacrifices. Today, they continue to play this role by fighting against AKP-MHP fascism, which is the enemy of all peoples and all humanity.

The revolutionaries and working people of Turkey have made great sacrifices in the struggle against ex- ploitation, thereby creating an important tradition and legacy for this struggle. On May 1, 1976, 34 revo- lutionaries lost their lives in Taksim Square in an attack by the dark forces of the state. By remembering the martyrs of May 1, 1976, we commemorate all May 1 Şehits. We attach enormous importance to their memory and hereby declare that we will continue their struggle. The martyrs of May 1, 1976 in Taksim Square made a very important contribution to the creation of values such as democracy and freedom and to their tradition.

As the Kurdistan Freedom Movement, we have always seen ourselves as a part of the working class of Tur- key and the struggle for equality, freedom and democracy, which was created by the working class and the working people of the country. The liberation of all oppressed people in Turkey, especially the working class, is only possible with the help of the common struggle of the Kurdish people and the socialist and democratic forces of the country. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary that the struggle of the democratic forces of Turkey and the freedom struggle of Kurdistan become united even more.

AKP-MHP fascism pursues an anti-Kurdish policy and continuously carries out occupation and annihila- tion attacks against the Kurdish people. It tries to attack and occupy everywhere where Kurdish achieve- ments have been made. In addition to the occupation of parts of Rojava, it is now also occupying South Kurdistan. The goal of AKP-MHP fascism is to complete the genocide of the Kurds. It is using the values created by the working people and the peoples of Turkey to wage war against the Kurdish people. Therefore, everyone must take a clear position against the AKP-MHP-led war against the Kurdish people and the occupation that goes along with it. Because the Kurdish question is not solved in Turkey, the solution of the other problems of the country is also impossible. Because the solution of the Kurdish question requires a democratic mentality and attitude. We firmly believe that the working people, all workers, peoples, women and oppressed groups of society will take to the streets on this year’s May Day to express their protest and take a clear stand against the attacks and occupation carried out by AKP-MHP fascism. The Kurdish people will also strengthen their unity with the labor and democracy struggle in Turkey and thus overthrow AKP-MHP fascism and achieve the democratization of the country.

AKP-MHP fascism is not only an enemy of the Kurds, but just as much an enemy of the whole society, all peoples, women, workers and the whole working population. The AKP-MHP is the reason for all the cur – rent problems in Turkey. Therefore, all those who stand against tyranny and for equality and freedom must unite against AKP-MHP fascism and fight together against their common enemy. It is imperative to achieve this unity and to overthrow the AKP-MHP.

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We call on all peoples, women, workers and the entire working population to take to the streets on this year’s May Day and thereby strengthen their unity, openly take a stand against AKP-MHP’s occupation attacks and show solidarity with the Kurdish people.”


Kurdish language continues to be prohibited in prisons

ANF | Amed | 9 April 2022

The Prisons Commission of the Association of Lawyers for Freedom (ÖHD) Diyarbakir Branch visited prisons in Elazig, Malatya, Erzincan, Diyarbakir, Erzurum and Bayburt last week and talked to the de- tainees about the problems they are experiencing. During the meeting, rights violations such as restriction of social activities, bans on Kurdish and ill-treatment came to the fore. Lawyer Şemdin Şahin, one of the members of the commission, spoke about their meetings to Mezopotamya Agency (MA).

Lawyer Şahin said that there is an attempt to isolate prisoners through various violations. Referring to the latest situation in Diyarbakır No. 1 High Security Closed Prison, which is one of the prisons where viola- tions of rights are most experienced, Şahin noted that there are practices here that amount to torture.

Şahin described the incident that took place on March 25 as follows: “A prisoner was isolated, officially in ‘quarantine’ while returning from the hospital. The prisoner’s belongings are requested to be passed through the X-RAY device. The prisoner submits a petition to the administration to receive a battering re- port. However, despite the petition, the prisoner is not taken to the hospital.”

Military rules

Stating that after the incident, the chief guard and 10 guards entered the cell where the political prisoners were, dragged 3 detainees on the ground and took them to a different cell, Şahin said: “The chief guard is threatening the prisoners saying, ‘I can do whatever I want, no one can do anything to me, you can apply wherever you want’. Again, when the guards enter the cells, they impose military order on the detainees.” Şahin noted that the guards justified their actions saying that “the circular came from Ankara”.

Kurdish language prohibited

Stating that the guards warned the detainees singing in Kurdish on the morning of 21 March, Newroz day, as “forbidden”, Şahin added that the detainees were also threatened with physical violence and disciplinary punishments. “This shows us that the state’s mentality regarding the Kurdish language has never changed. Although there is a channel like TRT 6, we see that this channel is only used as a propaganda tool by the government.”

10 The İmralı Post #8 Impunity policy

Stating that they submitted the report they prepared on the violations of rights in the prison to the neces – sary authorities and filed a criminal complaint, Şahin said: “However, no response was given. This situa- tion means the protection of those responsible. Thus, the guards will continue to torture and violate the prisoners’ rights by gaining strength from this impunity policy. Just as those who killed Kurdish children killed in the middle of the street are rewarded thanks to impunity, thus the state maintains the same policy of impunity against violations of rights in prisons.”

Human Rights Association: 255 prisoners have died in 5 years

ANF | Izmir | 10 April 2022

The Human Rights Association (IHD) Izmir branch made a press statement in front of Konak to draw at- tention to the situation of ill prisoners. A banner “Do not be silent, do not be a partner in crime, they are dying” was opened by activists. IHD Izmir branch secretary Ali Aydın drew attention to the death of Mehmet Sevinç, who died as a result of a cerebral haemorrhage in Manisa Akhisar Prison, and the condi – tion of seriously ill prisoner Nurettin Başaran. Aydın expressed his condolences to Sevinç’s family, empha- sizing that the right to life should be recognized for everyone without any discrimination.

Pointing to the situation of another ill prisoner, Nurettin Başaran, whose right to access to health has been violated, Aydın said: “Nurettin Başaran, born in 1981, was imprisoned in 2016 and sentenced to 25 years. Before being detained, he suffered a traffic accident in 2011. After the accident, he could not use his legs.”

255 prisoners died in jail in the past 5 years

Stating that the reports given by hospitals should be considered sufficient for the postponement of the sen- tences of ill detainees, Aydın said: “Nurettin Başaran cannot walk and is in a wheelchair. He should be re – lease and all ill prisoners with him.”

Aydın noted that it is responsibility of the state to guarantee the right to life of the prisoners and added that since 2017, 255 detainees have died in prison.


11 The İmralı Post #8 HDP deputy Gergerlioğlu draws attention to overcrowding and

violations in Turkish prisons

ANF | Ankara | 12 April 2022

HDP Kocaeli MP Ömer Faruk Gergerlioğlu said: “There is political pressure on the Istanbul ATK (Foren – sic Medicine Institute). That’s why prisoners are released either on their deathbed or in coffins.”

Speaking to ANF, Gergerlioğlu said that, according to the latest report of the Council of Europe on world prisons, Turkey has the highest prison population after Russia.

Stating that Turkey broke a record in terms of the rate of people entering prisons in a year, Gergerlioğlu added that the rate of imprisonment in Turkey increased by 89.3 percent.

“There is a grave situation. Prisons are overcrowded. Some prisons have an occupancy rate of up to 166%. If you keep 35 people in a 10-person space, people’s mental and physical health will deteriorate first. This is the biggest problem right now. People’s health is deteriorating and therefore, the number of ill prisoners is increasing dramatically. Those who enter prisons already ill are getting sicker. Currently, death rates in prisons are very high. We are in second place after Russia in deaths in prisons in the world. Among these rates, there are suicide cases at 13.9%.”

Reminding that they made legislative proposals to facilitate the procedures for the postponement of the executions of ill prisoners, Gergerlioğlu said: “Prisoners with cancer, Alzheimer’s and many other chronic and severe illnesses should not remain in prison. The issue of suspension of the sentence is crucial. I have many cases ahead of me right now. Özge Özbek, who suffers from stage 4 brain cancer, had severe brain surgery. A year ago, she got her sentence suspended, but then the suspensions were revoked and now she’s back in prison. Training and Research Hospital says she can’t stay in prison, but Istanbul ATK says she can. There are political pressures on Istanbul ATK. That is why prisoners are released either on their deathbed or in coffins.”

Drawing attention to the fact that Aysel Tuğluk has been kept in prison despite her severe dementia, Gerg- erlioğlu underlined that even though Kocaeli University Hospital gave a two-time suspension of execution, she was stuck in Istanbul ATK.

Gergerlioğlu said: “We see the same thing in the case of the Fethullah Gülen Community. Two ill prison- ers passed away in the past few days. One is Nusret Muğlu, 86 years old. The other is 83-year-old ill pris – oner Yusuf Pekmezci. Suspension of execution was too late for both prisoners. You can clearly see the state mentality here. They won’t free prisoners, they won’t give them a report. A prisoner named Abdo Baran, whom I followed closely, was handcuffed while in intensive care despite his unconsciousness and died in handcuffs on his sickbed. Today, I brought it to the agenda in the Parliament. In Van Prison, Şervan Cangüder committed suicide at the age of 20 due to depression. He had been in prison for 5 years. Sinan Kaya, a 28-year-old seriously ill prisoner with a liver transplant, committed suicide.”

12 The İmralı Post #8

Gergerlioğlu, who said that they received a lot of applications from families, added: “We see that there are great tragedies. The government cover all cases from A to Z. There are so many names in our minds, you wouldn’t believe it. We cannot forget people’s names; they leave such a great mark on us. Everyone for- gets, we can’t forget. You have punished people with fair or unfair judgments, but politics must be put aside. We all say get well soon to a sick person, regardless of his politics or religion. We see that all these re- ports were prepared under the law of the enemy. Aysel Tuğluk’s report is the best example of this. It is so biased. Many people could have been saved, but we lost young people, also because of these biased re- ports.”

Guards force prisoners to commit suicide in Silivri

ANF | Istanbul | 13 April 2022

Prisoner Ferhan Yılmaz and another prisoner whose name could not be identified, who were among the six prisoners that attempted to end their lives after being subjected to pressure and torture by 60 guards in Silivri L Type Closed Prison No. 5, lost their lives. No information has been received about the prisoners Çoşkun Ağca, Tolga Okçu, Abdulmenav Çetin, H. Masal and Ali, who were forced to commit suicide af- ter being subjected to torture. A prisoner named Halil Kasal still remains in intensive care.

After being informed that their son had been forced to commit suicide, Ağca’s family sent a lawyer to Silivri Prison. The family lawyer was informed by the prison administration that Ağca was forcibly trans- ferred by ambulance to İzmir No. 2 F Type Closed Prison. Ağca’s mother, Fatma Ağca, revealed that a guard from İzmir Prison called her daughter and gave the same information. Halil Kasal’s mother, Beyaz Kasal, also said that her son had been transferred to Izmir and was currently in a hospital. Kasal noted that she could not reach any information about which hospital her son was transferred. She added that she could not go to visit her son because she did not have enough money to travel.

Forced to Commit Suicide

It is further reported that another prisoner, Ercan Morkoç, who was in the same prison, was forced to commit suicide. In a phone call with his family today, Ercan Morkoç said that Orhan Hacıoğlu, Abdulme- nav Çetin, H. Masal, Tolga Okçu were taken to a hospital and later put into quarantine wards. Morkoç re- ported that prison guards left ropes and razor blades in the ward where prisoners Hacıoğlu, Çetin, Masal, Okçu and Ali were staying. The guards told them that “you are not dead, cut yourself again now.”

Morkoç also said that the prisoners in question have been on a hunger strike.


13 The İmralı Post #8 70-year-old prisoner remains in prison despite not being able to

meet his needs

ANF | Erzurum | 15 April 2022

70-year-old Abdulbaki Harmancı, who was sentenced to 6 years and 3 months in prison for “being a member of a terrorist organization” by the Bingöl 1st High Criminal Court in 2014 in Karlıova district of Bingöl, was arrested on 25 April 2021, after his sentence was upheld by the Supreme Court. After staying in Muş Prison for a while, Harmancı was transferred to Erzurum H-Type Closed Prison on 20 March, and is experiencing serious health problems. Harmancı cannot meet his needs due to his age and poor health.

ATK gave a report without any examination

Ferit Harmancı said that his father was sentenced only with the testimony of a secret witness, and added: “My father was arrested after his sentence was upheld by the Supreme Court. My father, who had a sud- den illness in prison a short time ago, was referred to the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute (ATK) by the doctors of Muş State Hospital. He was sent back with a report stating that he could stay in prison even though no examination had been done at the ATK.”

Stating that his father was transferred to Erzurum against his will at the end of March, Harmancı listed his father’s health problems as follows: “My father is a person who had open heart surgery. He has severe stomach wounds, a malfunctioning heart valve. He cannot see from one eye. He has varicose veins on his right leg and hearing problems. He is having shortness of breath. It is not possible for a person who is 70 years old to survive in prison. How can a person with such diseases be kept in prison and how can the ATK say that he can actually stay in prison? We want him to be sent to house arrest.”

Police detains activists protesting for prisoners in Istanbul

ANF | Istanbul | 15 April 2022

The Initiative for Solidarity with Prisoners (TDI) organised a ‘bloody coffin’ protest in front of the Foren- sic Medicine Institute (ATK) in Yenibosna, Istanbul to raise concern over the increasing torture and deaths in Turkey’s prisons. The activists were blocked by the police.

Carrying a bloody coffin, the members of the initiative raised concern over the death of Ferhan Yılmaz who was brutally tortured in Silivri L Type Prison and died suspiciously two days before his release.

TDI spokesperson Ertan Çıta pointed out that the body of Yılmaz, who reportedly died of a heart attack, had marks of torture, yet, the ATK identified his death as stemming from a “contagious disease”.

14 The İmralı Post #8

The police surrounded the members of the initiative, who painted the coffin in red, symbolizing blood.

“This is the coffin of Ferhan Yılmaz, who was murdered by dozens of guards in Silivri prison. This is the coffin of Garibe Gezer, who was tortured to death in Kandıra F Type Prison,” a member of the initiative shouted during the protest.

Activists Abdülmelik Yalçın, Ertan Çıta and Hıdır Sabur were taken into custody. Moreover, reporters who were recording the event were forcibly removed from the area by the police.

Families protesting for prisoners on death fast detained

ANF | Ankara | 29 April 2022

Nine members of the Association of Solidarity with the Families of Prisoners and Convicts (TAYAD) were taken into custody in Ankara on Friday. The activists were set to make a public statement in front of the Ministry of Justice about the situation of two political prisoners. Sibel Balaç and Gökhan Yıldırım have been on death fast for months in protest at their conviction “on fabricated evidence” and demanding a fair trial.

Sibel Balaç, who is serving time in Sincan Women’s Prison, is a special needs teacher and was arrested at the end of 2018 as part of the “We want our work back” campaign launched by people dismissed from the civil service. The verdict of eight years imprisonment for alleged membership of the DHKP-C (Revolu- tionary People’s Liberation Party/Front), which is prosecuted as a terrorist organization in Turkey, is based on the alleged discovery of an SD card on her with “incriminating material”. It is still not clear what this is actually about. Throughout the entire process, the memory card has not appeared once.

Gökhan Yıldırım is a political activist who was sentenced to 46 years in prison in 2018 as the alleged “Is – tanbul leader” of DHKP-C and on charges of assault and property damage. He campaigned against state- sponsored drug use in the Gazi neighborhood and was targeted by drug gangs. According to TAYAD, the police protected the perpetrators and fabricated evidence against him. Both Yıldırım, who is being held in the Tekirdağ high security prison, and Balaç have been on hunger strike since December and have since turned their protest into a death fast. In this form of hunger strike, the participants consume only water with sugar and salt dissolved in it, and in some cases vitamin B supplements.

The TAYAD activists detained in Ankara, who include Gökhan Yıldırım’s brother Erkan Yıldırım, now face preliminary proceedings for violating the Turkish Law of Assembly.


15 The İmralı Post #8 Hıdır Sabur: We must raise our voice to expose violations of

rights in prison

ANF | Roni ARAM | Istanbul | 27 April 2022

It is a fact expressed by many civil and democratic institutions that the violations of rights in prisons have increased in the last two years due to the epidemic. Hıdır Sabur, the Term Spokesperson of the Solidarity with Prisoners Initiative (TDI), spoke to ANF about the effects of the epidemic. As Sabur stated, the epi – demic created a favourable environment for prison administrations in terms of rights violations and arbi- trary practices.

Hıdır Sabur pointed out that many of the rights of the prisoners had been taken away since the outbreak of the epidemic.

Another issue that Sabur draws attention to is the oppression against those outside in solidarity with the prisoners. “There were open visits in the past, they don’t exist anymore. There were chat rights, which were cancelled. Newspaper, magazine rights etc. everything has been taken away. At the stage we have reached today, we are trying to be in solidarity with the prisoners against different rights violations from almost ev- erywhere. At the end of last year alone, seven or eight prisoners died in just one week. We made a press statement saying that ‘prisons will not be death houses’. In this press statement, 12 of our friends were de- tained. Their cases are still ongoing. The pressures exist outside as well as inside.”

Sabur also drew attention to the legal changes made during the epidemic. “The execution law numbered 5275 says that everyone is equal before the law, regardless of their religion, language, race or political opin- ion. By making a change in this 5275, they let out nearly 150 thousand prisoners. Among them were murderers and thieves, pickpockets, and people of all kinds of crimes. But political prisoners, prisoners of conscience were not released and a special board was established to decide on their case.

We organized a for the release of ill prisoners. Despite this, although some of our prisoners were released, there are still many people inside who could not be released, including some who had served the years nec- essary to be up for review.

That’s why every action we take and the noise we make is so important. This work can be successful, espe- cially if the families of the prisoners participate in these outdoor activities. Of course, there is a certain amount of participation, but not too much, because some families are afraid that they will arrest us too. But we want to get this fear off them. That’s why we often try to come together for solidarity.”

Hıdır Sabur also said the following about the death and torture news from Silivri Prison: “Prisoners were killed by torture, not just by illness. Like Garibe Gezer and Ferhan Yilmaz. Lastly, we took a coffin with my friends and left it in front of ATK. We said, ‘This is a bloody coffin.’ Many prisoners were tortured to death, and the images of Ferhan Yılmaz, whom they said died of a heart attack, were shown. Again, the pressure to commit suicide is strong on other prisoners. For this, we must make more noise from the out- side; because at any moment, the news of the death of another prisoner will destroy a family. And then

16 The İmralı Post #8 there is the situation of ill prisoners. There is Abdullah Kalay, for example. 75% of his body does not


Hıdır Sabur, who is also a relative of a prisoner himself, draws attention to another problem in prisons. With the increasing inflation, the bills in the prisons are very high and the system of sending money to the prisoners has changed. “In the past, we used to deposit money when we went to visit our relatives. Now you deposit it in the bank. Let’s say that if we deposit 100 liras, 40 liras is deducted as tax. Again, the issue of increasing bills is a problem there as well. For example, electricity. This has become such that in recent times, almost all the money that families spend on their relatives in prison has been gone to pay electricity and water bills.”


Military Aggressions by Turkey

Karayılan: This is a matter of life and death, every Kurd must do their part!

ANF | Behdinan | 22 April 2022

Karayılan remarked that they are only at the start of a historical struggle to be witnessed and stated, “The path of our people’s existence, the path of their future, the path of our people’s independence all pass through here. We will provide it at any cost. We believe in ourselves, and we will defeat this enemy.”

Karayılan urged the people of Southern Kurdistan, in particular, not to abandon them in this process, as they had done in 2008, and urged all Kurds to “take risks and do whatever they can.”

Karayılan, a member of the PKK (Kurdistan Workers’ Party) Executive Committee, responded to ANF’s questions about the Turkish state’s offensive on the Medya Defense Zones, which began on April 17, and the KDP’s cooperation.

The Turkish state launched a full attack on the Medya Defense Zones on the night of April 17th. What is the goal of this attack?

First of all, it should be noted that this attack is not an ordinary one. Since 2016, the Turkish state has been acting according to a new concept, based on a certain strategy. The aim of this strategy is that Turkey, in order to stop the struggle for freedom in Kurdistan, must not shrink but expand. In this context, the state aimed to bring the areas within the borders of Misak-i Milli [Ottoman National Pact, which goes far beyond today’s Turkey] under its control in the military, political, economic sense. At the same time, Iraq and Syria are not to be occupied directly, but brought under a kind of patronage. In this way, a neo-Ot- toman program is to be implemented and Turkey is to be made the largest state in the region. This is the

17 The İmralı Post #8

core of the concept. On this basis, the Turkish state has been fighting us for a long time. It is attacking the Kurdish people not only on a military level, but also on a political, social and cultural level. A torture regime was installed against Rêber Apo [Abdullah Öcalan], which does not exist in this form anywhere in the world. The Turkish state has established a permanent state of emergency in order to destroy us.

As is known, in 2021, the Turkish state aimed to occupy the areas where the guerrillas are located in Southern Kurdistan, the Medya Defense Zones. So Gare was attacked surprisingly, while there was still snow. As is known, the Turkish army suffered a defeat there. Then there were extensive attacks on Zap, Avaşîn and Metîna. The areas were to be occupied in order to advance from there to Gare and Qandil. This was supposed to happen within three months, but this plan did not work out. It was a defeat for the Turkish army. A few hills were taken in some areas, but the guerrillas put up great resistance and the Turk – ish army was defeated another time.

“They cannot digest the defeat of 2021”

We knew that the Turkish state would not digest this so easily. The fascist AKP/MHP regime must imple- ment its strategy. It made that its central task. But the regime did not succeed and therefore it is heading towards collapse. Every day it is getting weaker. The government now has one more year to go and its exis- tence is tied to the success of its strategy. That is why it has launched an even more comprehensive attack.

Of course, we knew about it. We are always watching the enemy. New forces were trained, soldiers were trained, and regional powers were prepared diplomatically and politically. International support was also provided so that no one would oppose it. In short, the Turkish state has made clandestine preparations in a broad framework, both diplomatically and militarily. It was within this framework that the April 17 at- tacks began.

“Not an operation, but a major war”

It would be more correct to say that the attack began on April 14. This is because air raids took place for three days before April 17. In military literature, this is called “softening up”. For this purpose, air raids were carried out. Then, on the night of April 17-18, they attacked from the ground from the south and north. Airdropping operations were conducted to launch a full-scale invasion attack. This is not an opera- tion, but a major war. No state fights another so easily. Even in Ukraine, I don’t think there are such fronts that there could be the development of such a permanent war. It is a big war. The Turkish state has used its technology and chemical weapons before, but right now we see that it is putting even more em- phasis on technology. You can see helicopters, fighter jets, reconnaissance planes flying at the same time, while ground attacks are taking place and howitzers are fired from the border outposts. In short, it is aimed at a permanent bombardment and an absolute occupation.

“It’s going to get more intense”

But even the areas under attack are not just any areas. Zap and Avaşîn are sites of historic resistance. Our people and everyone should know that the war will get worse. The army has practically unlimited recourse to technology and wants to achieve results in this way. But our friends have enough experience. Especially in the past year, important experience has been gained in attacking the enemy from underground posi- tions and in the field and protecting themselves. This war will be of historic proportions.

18 The İmralı Post #8

We are at the beginning. We have written to the friends and congratulated them. The first days are very important in such processes. The friends have already been successful in these first days, for that we have congratulated them. Of course, the enemy is waging a special war. So he claims that he took so many places, and only one captain died. But this does not correspond to reality. The enemy obviously puts the greatest emphasis on technology and propaganda in this war. He wants to deceive the public by hiding the truth and manipulating the perception in Turkish society. For the fascist regime, it is an important war. It is about survival. If Erdoğan and Bahçeli lose this war, they will not only lose but also end up in prison. They are involved in corruption and so many crimes that they will not be spared from prosecution. That is why they have mobilized all of Turkey’s resources. They have taken risks and done everything domestically and internationally to succeed. They continue to do so.

“A war of strategic importance for the Kurdish people”

This war is not only a war between the PKK and the Turkish state. To claim such a thing is a big mistake. This war is being waged on the basis of a strategy. It is true that the first target of this strategy is the PKK, but the PKK is not the only target. There are other targets. The aim is to destroy all the achievements of the Kurdish people. After that, the AKP/MHP regime will be able to exert more influence on the Arab people and get them under control. As a result, the region will be dominated by Turkey. The Turkish state will not only take the mountains of Kurdistan, but also Hewlêr (Erbil) and Baghdad under its influence. Yes, the PKK is certainly the first target, but it is just about all the achievements of the Kurdish people. Therefore, the war has a strategic meaning for the Kurdish people. It is a matter of being or not being for the Kurdish people.

“It is a matter of life and death”

Turkey’s wealth has been consumed in the war. Most of the income goes to this war. Why are the people of Turkey starving today? Turkey is a rich country, but all the income has been secretly and openly diverted to the war. Now the rulers will be told, “You spent so much money on the war and still couldn’t win.” In – vestigation proceedings will be launched. Therefore, in order to continue their rule and strengthen the hegemony of fascism in Kurdistan, the fascists Erdoğan and Bahçeli must succeed against us. This is very important for them. It is even more important for us. It is a matter of life and death. It is important for our people, for the Arab people, for the people in the region. Turkey is pursuing neo-Ottoman dreams and not listening to anyone. This is not a secret plan. Every day they openly say about Kirkuk, “This was actu- ally ours, but they took it from us.” The Turkish state has such intentions, otherwise what would the sol- diers in Bashiqa be doing? Why are so many preparations being made regarding Kirkuk? It is clear that if this strategy holds, the Kurdish status will be destroyed. Because the KDP likes it, it is called the “Kurdish leadership.” What is it leading? The terms “Kurdish government of northern Iraq” or “prime minister of the Kurds in northern Iraq” are used. The Turkish state does not recognize Kurds at home or abroad. It does not recognize Kurdistan in any way. This is the truth. The Turkish state has organized itself on the ba- sis of this concept and is waging war on this basis.

Our people should know, we consider this phase as an exceptional situation. It is the time of mobilization. Accordingly, everyone must do what they can. We are in a very important and critical phase. It is ex- tremely delicate. We must break this wave of attack by the enemy. If we succeed, a new era will begin in Kurdistan, Turkey and the region, a solution will develop, freedom and democracy will develop. In this sense, this is a resistance for democracy and freedom, it is the resistance of the Kurdish people for their ex –

19 The İmralı Post #8 istence, it is the resistance of the Kurdish people for freedom, it is the resistance of the peoples of the re-

gion for democracy.

What is the KDP’s role in these attacks? How strong is the KDP’s involvement in the war?

This is an important point. Already last year, the KDP supported Turkey’s strategy. They cooperated with each other. In what form did this cooperation take place? The KDP surrounded the guerrilla areas and im- posed an embargo. On the other hand, it provided intelligence to Turkey. The KDP cooperated with the intelligence services; in addition, it laid ambushes for the guerrillas. In Xelîfan, it attacked the guerrillas twice. Fighters were killed in the process. That was the nature of the collaboration last year. Apparently, Turkey was not satisfied with this, so talks were held with KDP representatives at the highest level. It seems that this year, the KDP has gone a step further in the latest attacks.

“A dangerous situation for the KDP”

We are not saying this to discredit the KDP. The KDP leaders do not say it openly, but this is the reality. The Turkish state confirms this after every meeting with them. For example, there was a meeting with Hu- lusi Akar [Turkey’s defense minister] in Munich. Afterwards, Akar said that they agreed on all issues and on the PKK, that there was a partnership. Erdoğan also said the same thing several times. Shortly before the last meeting in Istanbul, the air strikes started, and then the ground attack began. All this is not a se – cret. We don’t want the KDP to enter into a relationship that is against us and hostile to Kurds. I don’t know how this will end. So far, they have not gone into battle against the guerrillas, but since yesterday, forces have been massed. There are troop deployments to areas like Dêrelûk and Şîladizê. We don’t know if this will start a new stage. We have no information about that. The situation is dangerous, of course. We have really taken many initiatives so that there will not be a direct skirmish and not a “Kurds against Kurds” war. I personally have been very committed to this, and our entire management has done so. We always wanted to prevent it, and that’s what we want now.

“Kurds against Kurds” is a project of the Turkish state

When there were casualties in an attack in Khanasor, Shengal in 2017, we were under pressure to counter- attack. Our leadership stopped that. If it had been up to our friends there, they would have launched an all-out counterattack. In the fall of 2020, KDP troops were deployed to Zêbarî. There were units of ours at the hills there. It was foreseeable that there would be a battle, they also opened fire here and there, but we withdrew our forces from there. It is also public knowledge that troops were sent to the Metîna Mountains on June 5 last year with the intention of war. There was contact and a short clash. They did not station their troops on these hills and we withdrew our own forces. And why? So that there is no war in which Kurds fight Kurds. Nobody would benefit from that, nobody would win. It is a project of the Turkish state.

The Turkish state wants to turn this war into an intra-Kurdish war and thus successfully implement its project. We do not want that. However, there are limits. That is why our people, together with their politi- cians, intellectuals and artists, must face up to this responsibility. We cannot go on like this. We are ready to sacrifice and we fear no one. We do not want a war to develop among Kurds. This is the situation.

20 The İmralı Post #8

Do you have relations with the KDP? If so, at what level?

Last fall, the Turkish state suffered a defeat in Avaşîn because of our great resistance. Turkey is not a small state. It has weapons technology and uses chemical weapons, but it still did not succeed. I frankly hoped that Kek Mesûd [Barzanî] would change his mind. That is why I wrote him a letter. He answered, and I thank him for that. However, his answer did not contain a solution. For us, a solution is important, and it did not appear in it.

From today’s perspective, they [the KDP] have taken another step forward in their cooperation with the Turkish state. For example, they have allowed the Turkish troops stationed on Southern Kurdish soil to leave their locations and attack our forces. Because the Turkish state could not airdrop troops on the first day, units from its Sirê base near Şîladizê have been put into motion. Similarly, there have been troop transports by helicopter from Bamernê. This shows that cooperation has progressed. It is taking place with the permission of the KDP. In the past, forces stationed in Southern Kurdistan gathered intelligence for their state, but they were not operational forces actively intervening. I believe there was an agreement that these forces would not move without permission. Now that they have started moving, there appears to be such authorization. This issue is important to us. If the guerrillas are besieged in both the south and the north, it creates a favorable opportunity for the Turkish state. Moving troops out of the Sirê base in the south makes it more likely that it will achieve results in its attack. In this way, the guerrillas are meant to be encircled from all sides. We would not have thought that such a thing would be possible. However, it is the answer that has been given in practice.

Turkey will not withdraw from where it entered

We say that the Turkish state is pursuing an anti-Kurdish strategy. The KDP must not support this and must not cooperate with this strategy. We do not know what interests it is pursuing. This increases the danger for the Kurdish future. The Turkish state wants to establish itself in strategic places in Kurdistan. If it enters somewhere, it doesn’t leave again; this is openly stated in its media. It spends millions on road construction, so no one will be able to make it leave again. So why does the KDP behave this way? It may be said that the Turkish state is coming for the PKK. I say to this: Do not support it, then we will see if it can come.

There was such a debate last year as well. We said that the enemy cannot occupy the Zap, Metîna and Avaşîn line. In practice, we have stuck to this. This is not cheap propaganda, I have the reality in mind. We can prevail against this enemy. In short, the KDP must stop backing this racist strategy of Turkey. The strategy of the Turkish state is directed against all Kurds.

The KDP is sawing off the branch on which it is sitting

The PKK is a guarantee for the Federation of Southern Kurdistan. Without the PKK, the Turkish state would not give anything to it. If the PKK had not existed, the Republic of Turkey would not hold talks with Kurdish representatives. It never did. Now the PKK exists and it is a danger to them. Out of fear of the PKK, it talks to everybody. You have to keep that in mind. If the KDP continues to provide support and the PKK is weakened as a result, we will see if the KDP is still considered in any way. We know very well that this will not be the case. We are all on the line, and because the PKK is dangerous to the Turkish state, it is at the forefront. The PKK is meant to be crushed, and then everyone else will have their turn.

21 The İmralı Post #8

The Turkish state is against a Kurdish status. Two months ago, Hulusi Akar openly said in parliament that there is no place called Kurdistan in Turkey or outside it. To this end, the Turkish state is waging war and has developed a strategy to this end.

There is a joke in Turkey about Hodja Nasreddin, who saws off the branch he is sitting on and falls to the ground. The KDP is in the same situation. It wants to cut down the tree of life and this will also harm it. That is the truth. We want the KDP to get out of this situation. What initiatives are necessary for that, I don’t know. Başûr and Rojava must realize what dangers await them. Kurdish politicians must also see the danger and act on it.

How do you assess the attitude of the people in southern Kurdistan?

The people in the south have paid a high price; they have lived through Anfal [Under the name “Anfal”, the Iraqi Baath regime carried out genocidal measures in Southern Kurdistan in eight phases between 1986 and 1989, which left 182,000 people dead]. It was only recently the anniversary. Countless mas- sacres and genocides have been committed against this people. It is a patriotic people and looks back on numerous victims. In this respect, we have great respect for the people of Southern Kurdistan. An example is the operation in Zap 2008, when the Turkish state wanted to advance from Bamernê and Amêdî. But the people there opposed the tanks and did not allow the guerrillas to be surrounded. So the people in the south were involved in that victory in the Zap. What happened then? The Turkish state was defeated. It was the time when relations with Southern Kurdistan were a red line until then. They [the Turkish state] were forced to reverse that line. A year after that, relations were established. Without the victory in Zap 2008, these relations might not have been established at all. Once again, it was the people of Şîladizê who marched heroically and stormed and burned down its base in protest against the Turkish state. It did so with courage and the spirit of serhildan (Kr: uprising). Especially in the current phase, it is essential that the people of Southern Kurdistan stand up consistently and of their own will in the face of the Turkish oc- cupation. Now is the moment of such a situation against Turkey.

In summary, the people’s attitude is positive. As far as we can see, everyone opposes Turkey’s occupation attack – except the KDP. But the political architecture in South Kurdistan is not only represented by the KDP. And as far as we can tell, all other forces are against the current situation. Everything is obvious, nothing remains hidden; there are no interests for the Kurdish people. The Turkish state is walking on the basis of Turanism. The chauvinist and nationalist wing is particularly strong. Who is Bahçeli? He is the en – emy of the Kurdish people. Hulusi [Akar], who is waging this war one on one, is distinguished by a single characteristic: hostility towards the Kurdish people! It seems absolutely incomprehensible how it can be possible to enter into relations with such people. Personally, I find it hard to comprehend. How can it happen that Kurds become collaborators? The Turkish state has destroyed everyone in its history who has made pacts with it. Let’s take Dersim as an example. It was not all tribes who took up arms [in resisting the 1937-1938 genocide]. Only five tribal confederations fought. All the others had made themselves comfortable in collaboration with the state. But when resistance was broken, all of Dersim was subjected to genocide. The same is true for the Serhed region. This is the method of this state; its past bears witness to a genocidal history. Man should not go down the wrong path and rather not associate with them [the Turkish state]. Above all, people should not go against each other in wrong things. We are not against rela- tions of the government in South Kurdistan or the KDP with Turkey and we were not. What were we against? Against selfish interests to the detriment of the Kurds. An operation is being conducted here

22 The İmralı Post #8 against the Kurdish people. They [the KDP] call it an operation. In reality, it is a war in which [the KDP]

is participating.

I think that the people of South Kurdistan are aware of this. Therefore, I say it again: stay connected to us. Show solidarity at every opportunity and in all possible ways. Among the people in Behdînan as well as in Soran, patriotic values have deeply engraved themselves in the self-image. We ourselves are witnesses; we know the people. I have been in Behdînan for years and was in Qandil for years before that. I know the people very well. Its truth is sincere and absolute. We are convinced that it is against the present situation without exception.

We want two things

Media close to the KDP keep bringing it up; “residents are fleeing their villages” and “villagers are suffer- ing”. This is true, we are aware of this fact. So far there are more than thirty dead. They are our martyrs. But one should also be aware: only in Zap have the villages of Rêkan and Nêrwe been evacuated. The vil- lages in Sinunê have not been rebuilt, nor have those around Duhok. In each village there is just one house, if any. The answer to the question of why lies in questioning one’s own politics. The war is not the only reason why residents do not rebuild their villages. War is a cause, that’s true. But there is a general problem. Another is that the Turkish state is attacking. We must adopt a like-minded attitude toward this common enemy. Then it will be possible to resist. Then external and international powers will show a reac – tion. For as long as a sovereign Kurdish power condones these attacks, these barbaric acts will appear to be a matter of habit. In view of this, we are satisfied with the people’s attitude. We have hope. As I have al – ready formulated, our society should see itself as responsible. This phase must not transform into an inner- Kurdish war. Everyone must stand up against it. In particular, the peshmerga, which can look back on ar- duous efforts in this regard, and the KDP’s henchmen should recognize the course of events. I have a call to them, and I have hope. Everyone should evaluate their environment and take a stance. Because things are going in a gloomy direction. What do we want? There are two things:

-The war should not develop into a conflict of Kurds against Kurds.
The KDP should end its anti-Kurdish cooperation with the Turkish state. It should give up this policy.

These are our wishes. And these should also be the ideals of all patriotic Kurds. That is all I have to say in this context.

We want to defend the values of this people

You have spoken of your expectations of the people of Southern Kurdistan. What do you generally expect from the public in Kurdistan and from the friends of the Kurdish people?

We are waging a legitimate struggle. For years we have been in Zap. Now the Turkish occupation is com- ing forward to settle here permanently. In this way, it is trying to establish itself as the dominant force. And this is what we are resisting. It is not an ordinary struggle. We are giving our lives. Bombs are explod – ing every minute. There are air and ground attacks. We are at war with this enemy. Every person with a lit- tle conscience should give us his support. The enemy has tanks and cannons, helicopters, reconnaissance planes, all kinds of technology and weapons with which he attacks us. He has come up with tens of thou –

23 The İmralı Post #8

sands of soldiers, the mutual troop strength does not move on the same level. He is attacking us and we want to defend ourselves. But it is not only about self-defense; we want to protect the values of this na- tion.

The attacks against us are not limited to Zap. The biggest attack is currently against our chairman in Im- rali. He has been subjected to torture for 23 years. Ten thousand friends are in the dungeons, some of them lost their lives there. We are suffering great oppression, our people are suffering great oppression. It is this enemy that we are fighting back. We rightly say that solidarity should be with us, not with the enemy. Are we fighting for personal gain? We are not fighting for money or other material possessions. I have lived a whole life, but except for my weapon I have nothing in my personal possession. Rêber Apo is 73 years old, but he does not have anything personal. Let’s look at the young Kurdish men and women here who are leaving their universities to join the resistance in Zap. Is this not a source of pride for humanity? Be- cause it shows morals and values. People should give support. And if this is not possible, at least one should not help the enemy. To sum up, we have legitimate expectations. That is the answer to your ques- tion.

We sacrifice ourselves for the South

For whom and for what are we fighting? We fight for this people and their future. For this, we give casual – ties every day. If it were not for the great cause, the struggle for the existence and liberation of our people, the struggle for freedom and democracy of the region, then we would pack our bags and leave. But our guiding principle in the current situation is to show a strong will against the enemy and fight. Even if we give our lives, we will not bow down. We must not give up the ground, otherwise our holy land will be oc- cupied. We give our lives for South Kurdistan. It must be clear to all that South Kurdistan will face the greatest danger if the enemy succeeds in its offensive.

If not support, then at least objectivity

Once again, I invite everyone to consider the question of why Kurdish youth, young women and men, are resisting in these mountains. In whose interest are they resisting? Who are they standing up for? They are fighting for the people, democracy and freedom. What else could be the answer? Man must have one hun- dred percent faith, otherwise he could not withstand 24 minutes – let alone 24 hours – [in the mountains]. Here you go, let them come and try. The Kurojahro is directly across from the urban space. It is easy to get an overview of life there. Also about how it is in Şikefta Birîndara. It is first and foremost a matter of con- science: there is an unequal war going on. While one side is fighting only with its guns and bombs, the other side is resorting to a very wide range of technology and aircraft. This side uses all kinds of weapons and poisons. Assistance should be given to those who fight with guns and bombs. If assistance is denied, at least there should be objectivity. We want the KDP forces to be neutral. They should not take sides, but at least observe our actions. It is not acceptable that they block our way here and there. After all, we did not fall from the sky, we have been here for years. There were agreements between us made in 1982 and 1995. We have shared our bread, visited each other, so much has happened. Now the enemy is facing us. That’s when we should look at what we’re doing.

24 The İmralı Post #8 We will defeat this enemy

We, at least, believe in ourselves. We will defeat this enemy. In our own way and with our intellect and be- lief in the ideology of Rêber Apo, we will resist and win! The achievement we have brought forth in the past year through our tactics and deepening is the badge of our victory. We can win. The enemy may have as many weapons, technology and soldiers. We have confidence in ourselves. And we want to fight. We don’t want to leave Zap. We want to defeat the enemy. That is our ambition! We are not children. This thing, politics, has been on our minds for years. We are not ignorant, we have read tons of books. Nobody has lost his mind. We know that the way of our people’s existence, the way of their future, the way of our people’s freedom runs here. It doesn’t matter what the price may be – we are ready to pay it. If necessary, we will give our lives. It is with this love and faith that we are fighting this war. Because we are right.

No to inner-Kurdish war

To those who represent the conscience of this people; we appeal to artists, intellectuals and real politicians, to all people in Kurdistan: support us. Do not let the war become an internal Kurdish conflict, stop it. We are in a historic phase. We believe in ourselves and we say that we will win this struggle.

With iron will and great courage, we as Kurdish women and men are fighting in these mountains against the barbaric enemy. Just now we sent a message of congratulations. In these two days, the friends have al- ready written a heroic poem. It is not an easy thing, it is something new in Kurdistan. Both the ways to reach the goal and the attitude of will and faith are new in this warfare. There were sacrificers. This coun- try has sacrificers, so it will win. No power, tank or cannon can break this will. That is why we say; the in – tellectuals of this country, the artists, the politicians and all the patriots of this country! We know that they are on the streets every day in Europe. I salute them. Our people are in action in all parts of Kurdistan, they are on a quest. I greet them all. But we should know that this is an extraordinary time and everyone should do what they can. I am not saying that they should rebel to a specific side. I am saying stand up and move so that the Kurd does not shoot at the Kurd. Strengthen each other. Now, at this time, our peo- ple must adopt the right attitude. Only in this way can it prevent a fatal outcome. Kurdish intellectuals and artists should get to work, be present and take the initiative. They should prevent wrong situations from arising. This is our appeal to everyone. No one should be silent in the face of this historical phase; ev- eryone should take responsibility for themselves, according to their local conditions, and believe in us. Be- cause we keep our promise. We may not be able to do everything, but there are things we can do. And we are absolutely determined on this issue. We will give the necessary answer to the enemy.

Iraq is encouraged for attacks by Turkey

According to the latest news, there are currently attacks by the Iraqi army on security forces in Şengal – there are said to be heavy clashes. How should this situation be assessed? For what reason is Iraq attacking in the current situation in Şengal?

We also follow the events only through the media. Now and then there are times when it is not possible to follow the press closely. But in this matter, we were able to get a picture of the situation. It is quite aston – ishing that the Iraqi state in Şengal is acting like Turkey’s foot troops. The Yazidi people have endured 74 waves of genocidal persecution so far. Yet they have been left to their fate. [In the last genocide by ISIS on

25 The İmralı Post #8

August 3, 2014] even Iraqi troops were on the scene, but they too abandoned the Yazidis. Now that the faith of these people in the Iraqi forces has weakened and they want to build their own security structures, they are being targeted. This is met with incomprehension. It is obvious that all this is happening with the support of the Turkish state.

Let’s take the construction of the wall [between Şengal and Rojava]. Who is it being built against? Where does it run? It is hard to ignore the wrong behavior of the Iraqi state in this context. Especially since the tenure of Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi, the Iraqi government has been incompetent in representing the Iraqi nation, the Arab people. Before al-Kadhimi, Iraq’s official announcement to the Turkish state was that Başîqa must be cleared, just to give one example. The Turkish state ignored this demand. Instead of clearing the base, it increased the number of troops. You know it yourself, the Turkish state killed two Iraqi commanders [in 2020]. The vehicle of our forces moved forward, but the targeted fire was directed against the Iraqi army vehicle. And what did al-Kadhimi do against Turkey? He took a stance against Erdoğan and stood at attention like a soldier. It is obvious that the will of the Iraqi people is not represented through him. The president as well as Moqtada al-Sadr expressed a reaction. Regarding the representation of the people, these are important details that are quite positive. But why doesn’t the prime minister make a statement? Doesn’t he have to do so in his position? It is always perplexing. Even now, when the Yazidis are being targeted and facing military operations. Why? One can hardly speak of unity in such actions.

It takes common sense

We are always on the side of the Yazidi people. The PKK may not be on the ground, but our support is for the Yazidis, and it will always be that way. They have the right to build their own security structures and defend themselves. The state should agree to this. After all, self-determination is a legitimate right. I appeal to Iraq’s reason: solve the existing problems through dialogue. It must not happen that the army, of all people, which disappeared into thin air when ISIS appeared, now, after the Yazidis have freed themselves from the clutches of ISIS, proceeds with an operation against this people. I can only hope that common sense will prevail and existing problems will be eliminated through dialogue so that peace can return to Şengal. That is what is most needed in times like these. This is my hope and expectation. The resistance units YBŞ and the Asayîşa Êzîdxanê forces are legitimate and we support them. But to claim that they are all directed by the PKK is a lie by the Turkish state. No one should believe that either. A realistic approach should be in the foreground. We hope that this problem will be solved through dialogue.

Is there anything else you would like to say?

The days we are experiencing are the most difficult in the history of our struggle. It is an important phase. In what way? The war between us and the Turkish occupation has reached its peak. Of course, they want to beat us and we want to beat them.

The youth must play their role

All patriotic people, all Kurds should take a role in this time. They must fulfill their patriotic duties. Espe – cially the youth and free women in South Kurdistan should not face this period in silence. Our people must raise their voice against the fascist and murderous policies of the Turkish state. For Kurdish youth in Turkey, in the Turkish metropolises, the moment is favorable for action. They have their own initiative. They should not say: there are no weapons. There are. They just have to find them. A lighter, for example,

26 The İmralı Post #8

can also be a weapon. The possibilities are endless. Therefore, everyone should definitely take action. Our people in the dungeons are being murdered, every day passes with torture by guards. They torture the youth. I take this opportunity to remember all the martyrs of the prison resistors. I bow my head before them and the memory of them. We must rise up against oppression. We must not remain silent in the face of this injustice. Because if we remain silent, we become part of oppression. That is why we must rise up. It is necessary to oppose injustice. Therefore, my appeal is especially to the Kurdish youth to be in action in this special phase. Become active in your own places or join the ranks of the guerrillas. This is our call. A historic time has dawned in which Kurdish youth must play their role. Come to the mountains.

It is the time to take risks

Today, the guerrilla plays a historic and strategic role. Apart from the guerrillas, there is no force capable of opposing this enemy. [The enemy] wants to carry out genocide against the Kurds. Therefore, everyone should mobilize and organize themselves, and not wait for special instructions or cadres. In every neigh- borhood, people can organize and become a force, a committee, will, action power. Participatory power and participatory forces are important.

Last but not least, let it be said that great resistance is taking place here. Once again, I greet with all my heart my friends who are moving like lions in this war, in this fire. Certainly, I am also part of this cause, I am one of those responsible. But it is these companions, Kurdish women and men, who, with the spirit of sacrifice, take the form of Egîd [Mahsum Korkmaz, guerrilla commander who fired the first shot of the PKK in 1984]. Their devotion can hardly be put into words. It is like a jewel. On this basis, it is our ambi- tion to be victorious in every case. We must shoulder responsibility. It is risks that we take. But it is the time when everyone must summon up the courage to go all out. This applies to me as well as to all cadres, all fighters, all commanders and patriots. But it also applies to every Kurd. In order to make 2022 a great year, everyone must make the necessary sacrifices.

We celebrated the 50th Newroz [since the first moment of the Kurdish liberation movement] this year. A great spirit revealed itself. As a continuation of this, we want 2022 to be the year of the great march with the soul of the Newroz fire and the heart of the Zap resistance. It should be the year of the freedom march. This should be the indicated direction for all. This is my call. Greetings from the bottom of my heart.

Turkey’s village guards continue plunder of nature in South


ANF | 8 April 2022

The military operation launched by the Turkish army on April 23, 2021 in the Zap, Avaşîn and Metina re- gions of the guerrilla-held Medya Defense Zones in South Kurdistan is continuing. The plunder of nature which was prompted by the Turkish campaign has been resumed by the village guards hired by the Turkish army.

27 The İmralı Post #8

According to information obtained by Mezopotamya Agency (MA) from local sources, the village guards from the Sêgirkê (Şenoba) town of Şırnak’s Uludere district have been deployed to the Avaşîn, Zap and Metîna regions for cutting trees.

It is reported that the village guards are replaced by new groups of guards on a monthly basis. Apart from their guarding activities, the village guards are tasked with cutting down the trees in the region in return for a fee.

Village Guard: Armed Collaborators

Village guards are armed collaborators of the AKP / MHP regime. In the 1990s, in particular, many peo- ple had to flee the region because they had refused to become village guards. Other family clans got in- volved with the state and became para-state death squads that terrorize the population acting by interface between organized crime, the secret service and counterinsurgency.

Forests in Şırnak countryside under Turkish military threat

ANF | Şirnak | 11 April 2022

In the Besta region, which is the link between the Kurdish provinces of Şırnak and Siirt, another destruc- tion is to be carried out in the mixed forest to make room for a new “kalekol.” The targeted trees are mainly located on private land in the Mêrgamor area, which is strategic from a military point of view. The Turkish army is pressuring the owners to clear the area themselves, otherwise the village guard association from the town of Sêgirkê (Şenoba) would move in. The paramilitary family organization has been in the pay of the Turkish state for years and is partly responsible for the destruction of nature in Şırnak.

Hundreds of trees have already been cut down in Mêrgamor for the planned kalekol, a military guard- house turned into a fortress. According to sources in the region, a large number of trucks are ready to transport the cut wood. The residents of the affected area are against the destruction. This is because, like many other people in Kurdish society, they revere trees as sacred. Forests are existential to protect our cli- mate. In addition, the massacre of trees also destroys the habitat of numerous animals.

Massive troop concentrations in Besta and the surrounding area indicate that another large-scale operation against the Kurdish guerrillas is imminent in the border area between Şırnak and Siirt. Since March, the Turkish army’s traditional “spring operations” have been underway in some parts of northern Kurdistan, often involving thousands of soldiers and members of paramilitary special forces as well as the air force. In earlier years, the guerrillas’ transition from winter to spring was more of a disadvantage. But in the mean- time, spring operations hardly produce any significant results, as the guerrillas initiate their phase of action in advance.


28 The İmralı Post #8 Muqtada Al Sadr says Turkish attacks a violation of Iraqi


ANF | Iraq | 19 April 2022

Muqtada Al Sadr, the leader of the Sadr movement, made a statement on Twitter regarding the new inva- sion attacks launched by the Turkish state in South Kurdistan.

Sadr said he condemns and considers the Turkish state’s attacks on the Kurdistan Region a violation of Iraq’s sovereign rights.

Sadr underlined that if the attacks continue, they will not remain silent, and urged the Turkish state to solve the problems through dialogue.

Sadr also said that they are ready to contribute to the solution of problems through dialogue and demo- cratic methods.

Iraqi President Barham Salih: Turkish state’s attacks are clear

threat to national security

ANF | Iraq | 19 April 2022

Iraqi President Barhem Salih made a statement regarding the attacks by the Turkish state. “We closely fol- low the attacks launched by the Turkish state,” he said, adding that “these attacks clearly threaten our na- tional security. These ongoing attacks were carried out in spite of us. We have previously called for these attacks to be stopped.”

Salih called for dialogue for the solution to problems and said: “We are in favour of solving the problems through dialogue and democratic methods. We have called for this many times. We reject and do not ac- cept the continuation of the Turkish state’s attacks. We expect respect for our sovereign rights.”

Salih said: “Our Iraqi foreign policy and state decisions absolutely reject the attacks of the Turkish state. We will not accept this in any way.”


29 The İmralı Post #8 Iraq hands Turkey a diplomatic note, calling for withdrawal of

Turkish troops

ANF | Iraq | 19 April 2022

The Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Tuesday summoned the Turkish ambassador to Iraq, Mr. Alireza kunai, on the background of the ongoing violations of the Turkish army.

The action by the ministry comes after the recent large-scale military operation launched by the Turkish state in southern Kurdistan (northern Iraq), which affects the areas of Metina, Zap, Avashin and Basyan.

The ministry handed the Turkish ambassador a strongly worded diplomatic note calling for the cessation of such provocative acts and unacceptable violations, according to a statement released by the ministry to- day.

“The Iraqi government renews its demand for the withdrawal of all Turkish forces from Iraqi territory in a manner that reflects a binding respect for national sovereignty,” said the statement, which further pointed out that, “Iraq has the legal right to take the necessary and appropriate measures in accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the norms of international law in the face of such unilateral and hostile acts, which take place without coordination with the Iraqi government.”

Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs denies Turkish President

statement about Baghdad cooperation

ANF | Iraq | 21 April 2022

The Iraqi Foreign Ministry denied the AKP President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s statement about Baghdad’s cooperation in the military operation in South Kurdistan.

Speaking to the Iraqi media, Iraqi Foreign Ministry spokesman Ahmed Sehaf said: “The Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs sees Turkey’s military operation as a clear violation of Iraqi territory and considers it dan- gerous for Iraq’s territorial integrity. “This operation is hurting Iraq and is causing concern.”

Sehaf said that the Iraqi Foreign Ministry summoned Turkey’s ambassador to the ministry and a harsh note was given, describing the unilateral operation as an act of hostility.

Sehaf reiterated the demands of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the Turkish army to leave Iraqi territory and added that the Turkish authorities had not yet responded to the note to the Turkish ambas – sador in Baghdad. The note, he said, expressed Iraq’s dissatisfaction.

30 The İmralı Post #8 Sehaf also denied Erdogan’s statement about Iraqi cooperation in the attacks.

Chinook helicopters in the war in Kurdistan

ANF | 23 April 2022

The People’s Defense Forces (HPG) announced on Friday that US-made CH-47 Chinook helicopters are also being used in the Turkish army’s invasion of the Medya Defense Zones in southern Kurdistan (north- ern Iraq), which has been carried out with the support of the KDP since April 17.

Within the framework of its extermination concept against the Kurdish people, the Turkish state has re- sorted to many different methods to occupy the guerrilla areas in Kurdistan in recent years. It has not been successful in doing so. The fact that the Turkish army is using Chinook helicopters, which can transport heavy loads and troops, in its latest invasion of the Zap region is attracting attention.

Chinook helicopters are generally preferred in comprehensive war zones and frequently used in NATO missions. Turkey owns eleven helicopters of this model. The AKP/MHP government acquired them from the manufacturer Boeing through negotiations between Ankara and Washington for a unit price of about $90 million.

The twin-engine helicopter with a tandem rotor arrangement can carry about sixty armed soldiers and ten tons of load. The Turkish state signed the agreement to purchase eleven models in 2011. However, due to the high financial volume, the purchase was postponed several times. In the course of the new war concept against the Kurdish liberation movement, the agreement was renewed in 2015. Six helicopters were deliv- ered in 2016. Turkey received the remaining aircraft in July 2019 after dirty negotiations with the then Trump administration. Previously, following the agreement between the Erdogan regime and Russia on the purchase of the S-400 missile defense system and the arrest of U.S. pastor Andrew Brunson in Turkey in 2018, certain arms agreements had been halted by order of U.S. President Donald Trump, including the F-35 fighter jet. To compensate for the imposed sanctions, the first Chinook was delivered in 2018, followed by four more in 2019.

That the first deployment of Chinook helicopters is now in southern Kurdistan indicates the scale of the military operation. The U.S. has used this model in Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq. Turkey first used the helicopter on the third day of the operation in the Zap region. This raises the question of whether the heli – copters transported dead and wounded. The model can carry 24 stretchers and be used as a mobile hospi- tal.


31 The İmralı Post #8 KNK issues public call demanding the OPCW to investigate

Turkey’s use of chemical weapons

ANF | Brussels | 28 April 2022

The Turkish invasion was launched with massive air strikes starting on 14 April. Then, on the night of 17 April, the Turkish army attempted to airdrop its soldiers in guerrilla areas under the cover of attack heli- copters and fighter jets. Since the fourth day of the invasion, the criminal actions of the Turkish army are seen in its use of toxic chemical substances against some of the defensive positions in the resistance areas of Kurojahro, Werxelê, Şehîd Şahîn, Kunîşka and Girê Ortê in South Kurdistan (Iraq).

The Kurdistan National Congress (KNK) issued a public call demanding the OPCW (Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons) to immediately investigate Turkey’s use of chemical weapons in Kurdistan.

The statement said that “poisonous gas was repeatedly used by the Turkish state in Southern Kurdistan last year too” and listed the suspected gases as follows:

Tabun: its neurotoxin is the oldest of the three so-called G-warfare agents, alongside soman and sarin;

Green Cross: the lung warfare agent contains chloropicrin as an active ingredient;

Mustard gas: the skin warfare agent, also known as yellow cross, belongs to the mustard gas group;

Unknown sleeping gas: another gas used by the Turkish army which makes those affected sluggish, causes memory loss and leads individuals to collapse;

Tear gas: tear gases are substances that are irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes.Despite evidence and several reports by delegations to the area, the Association OPCW did not take any actions against the use of these weapons which has emboldened Turkey to use them once again.”

The statement said: “We again remind the OPCW and the UN of their duties and call on them to take ur- gent action against these Turkish war crimes.

The Turkish occupying state sees the Kurdish Freedom Movement as the biggest obstacle to its dream to colonize the whole Middle East.

Unfortunately, the Turkish state is receiving direct and indirect support from collaborative local forces that have been recruited into its ranks. The Turkish state is supported by the KDP (Kurdistan Democratic Party) in its invasion of Southern Kurdistan.”

32 The İmralı Post #8 The intensity and the impact of the attacks by the Turkish army

The statement added: “No state can launch such an invasion so easily in violation of international law with countless cross-border military offensives. The Turkish attack helicopters did not take off to launch the at – tack from the Turkish side of the border, but from southern Kurdistan.

Turkey has long had its eyes on Kirkuk and Mosul in Iraq. Under the AKP, Turkey has been blatantly pur – suing a neo-Ottoman expansionist policy. And from this outlook, not only Rojava-Kurdistan but also South-Kurdistan belong to the Greater Turkish Empire. That is the rationale why Turkey is attacking the PKK, as its resistance and very existence is seen as a major obstacle to Turkish expansionism. Many air- dropping operations were conducted to launch a full-scale invasion attack, meaning that this was not an operation, but a major war. The Turkish state has also used its war technology and chemical weapons be – fore, but right now we see that it is now relying on them much more. They are using helicopters, fighter jets, and reconnaissance planes flying at the same time while ground attacks are taking place and howitzers are fired from the border outposts. In short, it is aimed at a permanent bombardment and full occupation. Turkish attack helicopters did not take off to launch the attack from the Turkish side of the border, but from southern Kurdistan.”

The KNK lists a few results of the intensity of the attacks of one week as follows: Air strikes by Turkish fighter jets: 387
Artillery attacks by Turkish combat helicopters and ground troops: 243 Chemical warfare agent deployments against guerrilla positions by Turkey: Number of Turkish soldiers killed: 218

Number of Turkish soldiers injured: 48
Number of martyred Kurdish guerrilla fighters: 11

In addition, 4 Turkish drones were shot down by the guerrillas, another drone and 11 helicopters were hit and damaged.”

International silence

The KNK continued: “The international community is currently remaining silent about this latest Turkish war of aggression. And silence in this context means consent. Turkey is exploiting the international focus on the Ukraine war to carry out its invasion. Unfortunately, Turkey’s war is receiving scant attention from the international media and the same Western politicians who seem able to issue round-the-clock com- mentary on the conflict in Ukraine.

The Turkish Defence Ministry claims that the offensive is being carried out with the country’s ‘friends and allies.’ Is that the real reason why the Western powers remain silent?

33 The İmralı Post #8

Breaches of international law, aggressive wars, the use of chemical weapons, airstrikes and the targeted killing of civilians are all rightly condemned and criticized when it comes to the invasion of Ukraine. However, the EU and the US prefer to avert their eyes to the fact that a NATO partner, namely Turkey, is guilty of these same breaches in Kurdistan.

By attacking and seeking to weaken the Kurdish democratic forces in Syria, in particular, the Turkish oper – ation is a gift to ISIS. Only two days ago, ISIS carried out attacks in Mosul, in Iraq. This war is assisting the terrorist group’s resurgence and Turkey is facilitating a renewal of its menace to the people of the re- gion and the world.

The KNK once again asked the OPCW and all its member states to “take seriously reports from the af- fected areas in South-Kurdistan, to immediately send an delegation to the affected areas, to carry out on- site investigations, and thus prevent Turkey`s use of chemical weapons.

Faced with this catastrophic war currently being waged by Turkey once again, it makes it urgent to break the silence and take a firm stance against Turkish war crimes such as its violation of international sovereignty, its breaches of international law and human rights infringements.

Germany backs Turkish invasion in South Kurdistan

ANF | Berlin | 28 April 2022

During a parliament speech about Germany’s arms deliveries to Ukraine on Wednesday, Foreign Minister Annalena Baerbock was asked about the invasion attack launched by the Turkish army in southern Kurdis- tan (northern Iraq) on April 17, 2022.

Martin Sichert from the ultra-right Alternative for Germany (AfD) asked Baerbock, a member of the Green Party: “When Turkey launched a military operation against Syria in 2019, your party, which was an opposition party at that time, insisted on imposing an arms embargo on Turkey, and the Federal Govern- ment then took a similar decision. Are you going to impose a new embargo that will halt arms deliveries to Turkey due to the military offensive it has launched in Iraq in the last few days?”

Baerbock Defends Turkish State’s Theses

In response, Foreign Minister Baerbock referred to the “legitimate defence” thesis frequently articulated by Turkish state officials. “We must look at Turkey’s motives for these military operations. Turkey has the right to defend itself, and of course, the civilian population should not be targeted. We do not have any concrete evidence that civilians are being harmed during this military operation.”

As a response, Sichert posed another question to Baerbock: “When you have concrete evidence, will you take action and decide to impose an embargo on Turkey?” Baerbock refused to give a clear answer to the question and said; “We should underline that Turkey is a NATO member. We supported the decision of

34 The İmralı Post #8 the previous government regarding arms sales to Turkey. In fact, arms sales to Turkey have been restricted

more than ever,” she said.

Contrary to what Baerbock said about Turkey’s right to self-defence, the Turkish state has started all its in- vasion attacks against South Kurdistan and North and East Syria in recent years, including the one on April 17, 2022, without any attack by the Kurdish forces.

Osman Kavala sentenced to aggravated life imprisonment in

Gezi Trial

ANF | Istanbul | 25 April 2022

Turkish philanthropist Osman Kavala has been sentenced to an aggravated life sentence in Istanbul’s much-criticized “Gezi trial.” The three judges handed down the sentence to the 64-year-old on charges of attempting to overthrow the government. Prospects of conditional release for Kavala do not exist accord- ing to valid case law: persons sentenced to life imprisonment with aggravated execution for crimes that the court considers committed against the “security of the state” remain in custody until physical death. The courtroom immediately reacted to the decision with boos and loud protests. The verdict is not yet final.

Kavala has been imprisoned in the maximum-security Silivri prison near Istanbul for four and a half years without having been found guilty of any of the charges against him so far. The Turkish judiciary and Presi – dent Recep Tayyip Erdoğan accuse him of trying to destabilize the country. According to the indictment, the charges in the trial were an attempted coup in connection with the Gezi protests of 2013 and “political and military espionage” in connection with the coup attempt of 2016. In February 2020, a court acquit- ted him of this charge.

The culture promoter has always denied all the accusations against him, calling them “conspiracy theories” and seeing himself as a victim of political instrumentalization on the part of the government. At the latest hearing last Friday, Kavala again denied the charges against him, saying the indictment was full of “mis- leading statements.” “The fact that I spent four and a half years of my life in prison is a loss that cannot be repaid,” Kavala had said in his closing statement. He said he could only be comforted “if what I went through would help put an end to serious miscarriages of justice.”

Seven co-defendants of Kavala, who appeared in court at the same time as him, were sentenced to 18 years in prison; Ayşe Mücella Yapıcı from the board of the Istanbul Chamber of Architects, film producer Çiğ- dem Mater Utku, director Mine Özerden, lawyer Can Atalay, urban planner Tayfun Kahraman and aca- demic Yiğit Ekmekçi, who is among the co-founders of Istanbul Bilgi University. They were accused of aiding and abetting the coup attempt. The court issued arrest warrants on the grounds of “risk of flight” due to the heavy sentence. They were arrested while still in the courtroom.

35 The İmralı Post #8 International Criticism of Handling of Kavala Case

The Kavala case has brought Turkey sharp international criticism. The country is threatened with expul- sion from the Council of Europe because of it. The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) ordered the release of the philanthropist in 2019, classifying his detention as politically motivated. A diplomatic furor erupted in late 2021 after ten Western ambassadors to Turkey wrote to demand Kavala’s release. President Erdoğan considered this to be inadmissible interference and threatened the diplomats with ex- pulsion.


Human Rights

Teacher working in Mersin has his “salary cut” for speaking Kurdish and Arabic to his students

ANF | Mersin | 30 April 2022

Mersin Akdeniz District Directorate of National Education launched an administrative investigation against Hüdai Morsümbül, a teacher working at Ulubatlı Hasan Secondary School, on the grounds that he spoke Kurdish and Arabic to his students and directed his students to choose Kurdish elective courses.

As a result of the investigation, Morsümbül was sentenced to “a monthly salary cut.” In the decision final- ized by the inspectors and notified to Morsümbül, the report dated 6 April 2022 and numbered 663.07/11 was quoted as a result of the investigation. “Even though you have been warned before, you have gone beyond the Turkish lesson curriculum and taught the students Kurdish and Arabic.”

Morsümbül, a teacher of Turkish for 23 years, was sent from his school to Yenitaşkent Yusuf Bayık Sec- ondary School.


36 The İmralı Post #8

Şenyaşar Family’s Case
Emine Şenyaşar summoned to testify again

ANF | Urfa | 12 April 2022

Emine Şenyaşar, who lost her husband and two sons in a massacre organized by the AKP Deputy İbrahim Halil Yıldız’s bodyguards and relatives on 14 June 2018 in the Suruç district of Urfa, and her son Ferit Şenyaşar, who was injured in the same attack, are continuing the justice vigil in front of the Urfa Court- house. The vigil, launched on March 9 in 2021, is on its 400th day.

Mother Emine Şenyaşar went to the Suruç District Police Department in the morning with her lawyer to give yet another statement as part of an “insult” investigation.

It is reported that an investigation has been launched against Şenyaşar for “insulting” AKP deputy İbrahim Halil Yıldız during a previous vigil in front of the courthouse. Emine Şenyaşar and his son Ferit Şenyaşar went to the courthouse after the statement to resume the justice vigil.

Emine Şenyaşar condemned the 15th investigation launched against her. She said that there was no jus- tice, and they were persecuted. “Release my son Fadıl. I am standing here while fasting, and demanding justice. Enough is enough, release my Fadıl,” the mother reacted.

“What did my children do? They were in their own shop. Why were they killed? The police asked me why I was sitting there. They battered me and Ferit. They took me to the detention center. I will not leave here even if I die until my son is released,” the mother said.

“There is the law of the superiors in the country. Those who murdered three people in a state hospital are considered as victims here and a mother who seeks justice is summoned to give a statement as a suspect. We tell this to the authorities. However, all the officials are running away from us by saying, ‘we just fol- low orders given to us’,” Ferit Şenyaşar said.


37 The İmralı Post #8 Four people arrested in connection with massacre against

Şenyaşar family in Urfa

ANF | Urfa | 24 April 2022

Three members of the Şenyaşar family were victims of lynchings carried out on the sidelines of a campaign tour of AKP deputy Ibrahim Halil Yıldız by his armed bodyguards and relatives in the district of Suruç on June 14, 2018, just days before the parliamentary and presidential elections.

Turkish judicial authorities have shown no interest in solving the murders of Hacı Esvet Şenyaşar and two of his sons, Celal and Adil, Yıldız and his mafia gang continue to enjoy a life of freedom.

Mother Emine Şenyaşar and her son Ferit, who was also injured in the attack, have been sitting outside the Palace of Justice in Urfa every day since March 9 last year to demand punishment for the killers of their family members.

11 people were taken into custody in connection with the triple murder the day before, including the AKP MP İbrahim Halil Yıldız’s elder brother Celal Yıldız, his nephew Osman Şah Yıldız, Şeğsin Yıldız (a nephew of the AKP MP working for the municipality), Mustafa Amaç (advisor to the AKP deputy) İbrahim Şimşek (a relative of the MP), Mikail Şimşek and Osman Yıldız.

The detainees were referred to court where 2 of the detainees, Osman Şah Yıldız and Osman Yıldız, were released after giving their statements to the prosecutor, while the other 9 were referred to the Criminal Court of Peace with a demand for their arrest.

While 5 more detainees were released with a judicial review measure, Celal Yıldız, Mikail Şimşek, Müslüm Yıldız and İbrahim Şimşek were remanded in custody on charges of “homicide” and “spoliation of evi- dence”.

The Massacre of the Şenyaşar Family

Ten days before the parliamentary election on June 24, 2018, AKP deputy Ibrahim Halil Yıldız, accompa- nied by relatives and bodyguards, visited the Şenyaşar family farm in Suruç. After a verbal argument, Yıldız’s bodyguards opened fire. Mehmet, Celal and Adil Şenyaşar were taken to a hospital with gunshot wounds, where two of them were ultimately murdered. The coroner’s autopsy of Celal Şenyaşar revealed bullet impacts from at least six firearms of various calibers. In Adil Şenyaşar’s case, cuts and stab wounds were found in 14 places on the body, as well as impact wounds with hard objects. The report said that Adil had been subjected to “extreme violence.” Seventeen bullets of various calibers were found in his body. Of these projectiles, five were fatal. Only two of the bullets were not fired from close range. The father, Hacı Esvet Şenyaşar, who had rushed to the hospital on foot, was severely injured there by blows to the head from an oxygen tank. He died a day later, while the funeral of his two sons was attacked by police with tear gas.


38 The İmralı Post #8


Sezai Temelli: The war economy is the reason for Turkey’s economic collapse

Kurdistan Report | 12 April 2022 | By Sezai Temelli

If we look at Turkey’s last forty years, we can see that the country’s now chronic political and economic crises are in part linked to the state’s war strategy against the Kurdish people. While the intensity of the war against the Kurdish people has fluctuated over the past decades, the fact that the Kurdish question to – day remains an issue of war and has not been resolved is related to the strategic partnership of the capital- ist class and the political rulers in Turkey. These have come together because of their overlapping interests of accumulation and hegemony. In recent times, this is particularly visible in the example of the agreement between the AKP rulers and the war industry in the country.

Three trillion dollars for the military

Countless studies and researches by international institutions have found that Turkey is one of the coun- tries where military spending has increased the most. Both scientific and technological researches in this field have been increased. This dramatic upward trend is undoubtedly the result of the hostility towards the Kurds and the war policy. In the last forty years of war, financial resources of almost three trillion dol- lars have been allocated to the military, condemning the country to this process of chronic crises.

The security policy and war funding in the region, built on violence and oppression, which leaves no room for a democratic solution to the Kurdish question, leads to a deepening of the economic crisis as public funds are excessively drained into these areas. This budget subsequently is missing in social areas such as education or the health sector. The related lack of funds for social security systems also leads to an increase in poverty and unemployment in the country. These diverse problems in the country have their roots in the Turkish state’s war and security policy.

Exposing the economic interests of the state

If we look at the development of capitalism in Turkey over the last 40 years or take a look at the exploita – tion mechanisms and surplus value developments in the country, it becomes visible that the war has cre – ated a very comfortable climate for the regime. If we do not expose this linkage of war policy and eco- nomic interests of certain factions in the state, it will not be possible to pave the way for a peace policy.

The expulsion of the Kurdish population, the destruction of their homeland, the extreme exploitation of the labor of forcibly migrated Kurds, the impoverishment and disenfranchisement of the Kurdish people is part of the production of surplus value in Turkey. The struggle for the redistribution of this surplus value

39 The İmralı Post #8 and the bases for an understanding about this distribution give us a clear picture of the structural compo –

sition of society in Turkey and of the ruling politics.

Imperialist Greed

The exorbitant centralization of capital accumulation in this area, especially in the last decade, has meant that Turkey’s existing state borders are now too narrowly cut for the satisfaction of its interests. The rulers have made it clear that they can no longer tame their imperialist desires and that they are dreaming of solving the current regime crisis with the help of the aspiration for the state borders of Misak-i Milli 1. The state leadership’s ongoing war strategy is consequently aimed at annexing territories in North Syria.

Society opposes the war

For the current government, which denies the right of the peoples of Syria, above all the Kurds, to self-de- termination, the end of the road is apparent both at home and abroad. The AKP leadership has lost social support and has lost credibility in the global political arena. Its attempt to stop the implementation of the peoples’ right to self-determination in Syria is futile. The state leadership may impose the war as much as it likes to bridge the militarist capital crisis, yet, society’s opposition to the war is becoming clearer as the economic crisis worsens.

Society, which is witnessing every day the destructive results of the economic crisis, is gradually breaking its silence. Each and everyone now knows how much a bullet costs, and no one wants to pay that price anymore. We are looking at a leadership that, in the interest of capital, wants to create even more surplus value with even more war and, at the same time, is sliding into an ever deepening crisis that is now as great as the one that led to its assumption of power at the time.

If we succeed in making the struggle for peace a matter for society as a whole, the most important dy- namic that will bring the current phase of the crisis to an end can emerge from this. It is inevitable that the whole society organizes together democratically against fascism and fights against war and for a digni- fied and lasting peace. Democratization inevitably goes hand in hand with the democratization of the economy. The democratic struggle must be carried out radically in every field in order to put an end to poverty, unemployment, ecological destruction and exploitation of labor and to find a democratic solution for the Kurdish question.

A radical struggle for democracy, moreover, is related to political and economic freedoms. We must carry the struggle for freedom for a democratic republic into every sphere of life and economy. Without detach- ing the sphere of the economy from the demand for freedom, we must build a future against capitalism and the nation-state that goes hand in hand with the democratization of the economy.

1. Misak-i Milli is the name for the political manifesto of the Turkish independence movement during the First World War. The borders of a Turkish republic that had not yet been founded at the time, as outlined in this manifesto, included areas in what is now Rojava (North Syria) and South Kurdistan (North Iraq).


40 The İmralı Post #8 Reclaim and protect the resistance in prison

Yeni Yaşam | 13 April 2022 | By Dr. Hayri Hazargöl

Every day news of death comes from prisons in Turkey. Everything is being done so that the ill prisoners die. This is how revenge is taken on revolutionary democratic prisoners. The attitude shown to Kurdish politician Aysel Tuğluk is the most striking example of this state’s revenge mentality. Since the policy of genocide against the Kurds has been carried out over time, anyone who tries to counter this policy is seen as an enemy. Those who have already been imprisoned face this persecution because they oppose the de- nial of Kurds, the desire to ‘Turkify’ Kurdistan over time and make Kurdistan an area of expansion for Turkish nationhood.

Looking at these practices in the prisons and the resulting deaths, who can say that the death penalty has been abolished in Turkey? The people in prison are executed over time. In other words, a policy of hanging on the gallows is carried out not once, but every day.

In Turkey, especially during the AKP-MHP rule, an order of oppression has been established in which there is no human, conscientious value or law.

A post-fascist oppression system has been created. Some formal legal norms and structures are used to cover this order. Europe, which Turkey wants to become a member of, ignores the practices that would raise the world in another part of the world, or makes criticisms that have no practical value. Although Turkey has signed the relevant European conventions on many issues, Europe does not apply the same cri- teria to Turkey as it applies to others. Taking courage from this, Turkey continues its practices recklessly. They do nothing but make a few criticisms. As a matter of fact, Schröder, who served as Chancellor in Germany for many years, says that we should maintain relations with these countries for our own inter- ests. He calls it making politics. Of course it’s dirty politics! Thus, it is admitted that Germany openly sup- ports the fascist policies in Turkey. Merkel has already taken its place in history as a prime minister who covers up Turkey’s fascist character more than Schroeder and cuts off the criticisms against Turkey.

Prisons are like this in Turkey, but the institution called CPT does not move a finger. Because they do not want to disturb Turkey due to political interests.

How the prisoners are left to die in Turkey shows itself in the approach of the official imams to the funer – als of these prisoners. The official imam does not perform the funeral prayer of a dead person. He ap- proaches not like a religious person, but like an enemy politician. No religion or belief in the history of humanity has approached the dead and funerals like this. However, imams in Turkey do not pray for those who oppose the Kurdish policy of the Turkish state. All institutions in Turkey have been shaped like this. Courts, universities, schools, education and health institutions, as well as the press, art and sports have been shaped by this mentality.

What the artists did to Ahmet Kaya is the reality of Turkey today. Now, if an artist came out to criticize these policies carried out by Turkey and demand the freedom of the Kurds with their language, culture, identity, artists who want to benefit the state would show a similar reaction. How many artists were able to take a clear and unequivocal stand in the face of the recent attacks on Sezen Aksu and Tarkan? Here is the

41 The İmralı Post #8 state of the art world in Turkey! It goes without saying how the other institutions of a country whose art

world is like this are.

Now, prisoners who have been in prison for 24 or 30 years and need to be released are not released. Sen – tences are given like a second court. The prisoner has to say that he was doing well, that he was rehabili – tated, that is, that the Kurdish people gave up their struggle for freedom. Of course, those who stayed in prison for 20 years, 24 years, 30 years, 35 years for their thoughts do not accept these impositions. These impositions are different forms of oppression and persecution from those lived in Diyarbakır in the 1980s. At that time, it was imposed on Kurds to renounce their ideas and Kurdishness by torture; now with the threat of further imprisonment. Of course, both the prisoners and their families resist this. Because Kur- dish politicians have no understanding of surrendering to such impositions in the history of prison. Even if they stay in prison for a hundred years, they protect their thoughts, dignity and will.

Those in prison are resisting for the democratization of Turkey and the free and autonomous life of the Kurdish people. They call it a free Kurdistan and a democratic Turkey. Then the Kurdish people and the forces of democracy should protect these resistance fighters. Taking care of those in prison is also the most basic duty of freedom and democracy.



The İmralı Post #8

Who Are We?

The International Initiative “Freedom for Abdullah Öcalan — Peace in Kurdistan” was founded in March 1999, a month after Öcalan’s abduction from Kenya and his imprisonment by Turkey. Since its initial foundation, the International Initiative struggled for Abdullah Öcalan’s re- lease from prison so that he can play his rightful role in the establishment of a just peace between the Turkish state and Kurdistan’s Workers Party (PKK). The International Initia- tive also aimed at contributing to the repairing of the ties between the Kurdish and Turkish peoples, as well as all other peoples of the Middle Eastern regions.

In order to achieve its aims, the International Initiative followed several related paths. Influencing international and national audiences through international campaigns to in- terfere with Turkish state’s policies towards Abdullah Öcalan has been one of these paths. A second area of work the In- ternational Initiative committed itself is the dissemination of Öcalan’s views through art, publications and conferences. Finally, the International Initiative has also been active in raising awareness for Öcalan’s conditions and the human rights violations he faces through reports, fact-finding dele- gations and lobbying.


The International Initiative organizes signature campaigns to influence the policies towards Öcalan. One such cam- paign which was launched in 2012 by one thousand prelim- inary signatories including Gerry Adams, Prof. Antonio Ne- gri, Prof. Immanuel Wallerstein, Prof. Achin Vanaik, and other intellectuals, politicians, MPs, and NGOs from South America, Europe, Asia, Russia, and the Middle East. The campaign reached 10,328,623 signatures and may be the biggest signature campaign for the freedom of a political prisoner that the world has ever seen. It significantly chal- lenged the isolation that was enforced on Öcalan and possi- bly paved the ways for the peace talks that the Turkish state and Öcalan led between 2013 and 2015.

The International Initiative also organizes video cam- paigns that educate the public on Öcalan’s life-story, his prison conditions and the demands for his freedom.


The International Initiative translates, edits and publishes books written by Öcalan in different languages including in English, German, French, Spanish and Arabic.

It compiles brochures from his works on specific topics, such as democratic confederalism or women’s freedom.
It edits books on Öcalan that discuss his main ideas.

The International Initiative also publishes regular reports on Öcalan’s prison conditions and his isolation.


The International Initiative organizes biannual conferences and invites scholars, activists, students and politicians to discuss Öcalan’s ideas in order to initiate a conversation be- tween different Movements around the world.


Every year on February 15 , which is the date of the abduc-

tion of Abdullah Öcalan, the International Initiative orga- nizes a group of internationally acclaimed people to take a trip to Turkey for a fact finding mission and publicizes their findings.


The International Initiative lobbies in the European Coun- cil, CPT and other international organizations against the human rights violations against Abdullah Öcalan and his total isolation in İmralı prison.

Art for Öcalan

This campaign aims to express the relationship between Ab- dullah Öcalan, Kurdish people, freedom and women’s free- dom and to educate the wider public on the past and present of the Kurdish people. The International Initiative has already collected art from Brazil, South Africa, USA, South America, Italy, Germany as well as Kurds from differ- ent parts of Kurdistan. These works have been printed in postcards, t-shirts and canvas and made available for solidar- ity sale.

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